Harshad Brahmbhatt, Maja Molnar*, Valentina Pavi and Vesna Rastijać
Background: Rhodanine is known for its potential and important role in the medicinal chemistry since its derivatives exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, antitubercular, anti-HIV, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-proliferative and anthelmintic agents.
Objectives: Since N-substituted rhodanine synthons are rarely commercially available, it is desirable to develop a straight forward synthetic approach for the synthesis of these key building blocks. The objective was to synthesize a series of rhodanine derivatives and to investigate their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Also, in order to obtain an insight into their structure-activity relationship QSAR studies on the antioxidant activity were performed.
Methods: 1H and 13C FTNMR spectra were recorded on Bruker Avance 600 MHz NMR Spectrometer, mass analysis were carried out on ESI+ mode by LC-MS/MS API 2000. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (% DPPH) was determined in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. The antibacterial activity was assessed against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) and Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative) bacteria in terms of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a modified broth microdilution method.
Results: A series of N-substituted-2-sulfanylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, GC MS, LCMS/MS and C,H,N,S elemental analysis. Most of the synthesized compounds showed moderate to excellent antibacterial activity (MIC values from 125 µg/ml to 15.62 µg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (from 3.60% to 94.40%). Compound 2-thioxo-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiazolidin-4-one showed the most potent activity against Escherichia coli (3.125 µg/mL), equivalent to antibiotic Amikacin sulphate and against Staphylococcus aureus (0.097 µg/ml), 100 times superior then antibiotic Amikacin sulphate. It has also shown a potent antioxidant activity (95% DPPH scavenging). Two best QSAR models, obtained by GETAWAY descriptor R7p+, Balabans molecular connectivity topological index and Narumi harmonic topological index (HNar), suggest that the enhanced antioxidant activity is related to the presence of pairs of atoms higher polarizability at the topological distance 7, substituted benzene ring and longer saturated aliphatic chain in N-substituents.
Conclusion: A series of novel N-substituted-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one derivatives were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity in vitro. Majority of the compounds showed excellent antibacterial activity compared to ampicillin and few of them have an excellent activity as compared to Chloramphenicol standard antibacterial drug. The QSAR study has clarified the importance of presence a pairs of atoms higher polarizability, such as Cl and S at the specific distance, as well as the substituted benzene ring and a long saturated aliphatic chain in N-substituents for the enhanced antioxidant activity of 2-sulfanylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives.
N-substituted-2-sulfanylidene-1, 3-thiazolidin-4-one, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, QSAR.
Department of Applied Chemistry and Ecology, Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Department of Applied Chemistry and Ecology, Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, The Department of Biology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Faculty of Agrobiotehnical Sciences Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek