Anser Ali, Zaman Ashraf, Muhammad Rafiq, Ajeet Kumar, Farukh Jabeen, Geon Joon Lee, Fahad Nazir, Mushtaq Ahmed, Myungchull Rhee and Eun Ha Choi*
Background: Tyrosinase is involved in melanin biosynthesis and the abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments leading to hyperpigmentation disorders. Controlling the melanogenesis could be an important strategy for treating abnormal pigmentation.Methods: In present study a series of amide derivatives (3a-e and 5a-e) were synthesized aiming to inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin production. All derivatives were screened for tyrosinase inhibition in cell free system. The possible interactions of amide derivatives with tyrosinase enzyme and affect of these interactions on tyrosinase structure were checked by molecular docking in silico and by circular dichroism (CD) studies, respectively. The most potent amide derivative (5c) based on cell free experiments, was further tested for cellular ROS inhibition and for tyrosinase activity using mouse skin melanoma (B16F10) cells. Results: The tyrosinase inhibitory concentration (IC50) for tested compounds was observed between the range of 68 to 0.0029 µg/ml with lowest IC50 value of compound 5c which outperforms than reference arbutin and kojic acid. The cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin quantification assay demonstrate that 15μg/ml of 5c attenuates 36% tyrosinase, 24% melanin content of B16F10 cells without significant cell toxicity. Moreover, the zebrafish in vivo assay reveals that 5c effectively reduces melanogenesis without perceptible toxicity. Furthermore, the molecular docking demonstrates that 5c interact with copper ions and multiple amino acids in the active site of tyrosinase with best glide score (-5.387 kcal/mol), essential for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition and the ability of diminishing the melanin synthesis in-vitro and in-vivo. Conclusion: Thus, we propose compound 5c a potential candidate to control tyrosinase rooted hyperpigmentation in the future.
Amide derivatives, tyrosinase, melanin, mouse skin melanoma (B16F10) cells.
Department of Zoology, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), 10250, Mirpur, AJK, Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad 44000, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Department of Biological Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Cardiovascular & Metabolic Research Unit, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON , Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwoon-gil, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Crop Protection, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Department of Zoology, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), 10250, Mirpur, AJK, Department of Biological Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwoon-gil, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701