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ROS Inhibitory Activity and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Benzoyl, Acetyl, Alkyl Ester, and Sulfonate Ester Substituted Coumarin Derivatives

Author(s):

Uzma Salar, Khalid Mohammed Khan*, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Farwa Naqvi, Shakil Ahmed, Erum Iqbal, Farman Ali, Kanwal and Shahnaz Perveen  

Abstract:


Background: A number of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin, indomethacin, ibuprofen, flufenamic acid, and phenylbutazone are being clinically used to treat inflammatory disorders. These NSAIDs are associated with serious side effects such as gastric ulceration, nephrotoxicity, and bleeding. So, the identification of potent and safe therapy for inflammatory disorders is still an interest for the medicinal chemist.

Methods: A series of varyingly substituted benzoyl, acetyl, alkyl ester, and sulfonate ester substituted coumarins 1-64 were screened for the inhibition of ROS, generated from zymosan activated whole blood phagocytes, using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence technique.

Results: Among all tested compounds, 8 (IC50 = 65.0 ± 3.1 µM), 24 (IC50 = 41.8 ± 1.5 µM), 26 (IC50 = 10.6 ± 2.8 µM), 28 (IC50 = 20.9 ± 1.5 µM), and 41 (IC50 = 4.6 ± 0.3 µM) showed good anti-inflammatory potential as compared to standard antiinflammatory drug ibuprofen (IC50 = 54.3 ± 1.9 µM). Specifically, compounds 24, 26, 28, and 41 showed superior activity than standard antiinflammatory drug. Furthermore, compounds 12 (IC50 = 219.0 ± 1.4 µM), 14 (IC50 = 216.5 ± 6.2 µM), 16 (IC50 = 187.4 ± 2.2 µM), and 20 (IC50 = 196.2 ± 2.0 µM) showed moderate ROS inhibitory activity. Limited SAR study revealed that hydroxy substituted compound showed better ROS inhibition potential in case of 3-benzoyl and 3-ethylester coumarin derivatives. Whereas, chloro substitution was found to be important in case of 3-acetyl coumarin derivatives. Similarly, in case of sulfonate ester, chloro, and nitro groups especially at positions-4 and -3 of ring “R” played vital role in ROS inhibition. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of all active compounds was also checked on NIH-3T3 cell line. Compounds 12, 14, and 20 were found to be non-cytotoxic. Whereas, 8, 16, 24, 26, 28, and 41 were found to be very weak cytotoxic as compared to standard cyclohexamide (IC50 = 0.13 ± 0.02 µM).

Conclusion: Identified ROS inhibitors offer the possibility of additional modifications that could give rise to lead structures for further research in order to obtain more potent, and safer antiinflammatory agent.

Keywords:

Coumarin, ROS, antiinflammatory, ibuprofen, structure-activity relationship, cytotoxicity

Affiliation:

H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Industrial Analytical Center (IAC), International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan, H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Shahrah-e-Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Karachi-75280



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