Heena Tabassum and Iffat Zareen Ahmad* Pages 146 - 157 ( 12 )
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is accountable for most of the peptic ulcer and intestinal cancers. Due to the uprising resistance towards H. pylori infection through the present and common proton pump inhibitors regimens, the investigation of novel candidates is the inevitable issue. Medicinal plants have always been a source of lead compounds for drug discovery. The research of the related effective enzymes linked with this gram-negative bacterium is critical for the discovery of novel drug targets.Objective: The aim of the study is to identify the best candidate to evaluate the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone and thymol against H. pylori oncoproteins, Cag A and Vac A in comparison to the standard drug, metronidazole by using a computational approach. Materials and Methods: The targeted oncoproteins, Cag A and Vac A were retrieved from RCSB PDB. Lipinski’s rule and ADMET toxicity profiling were carried out on the phytoconstituents of the N. sativa. The two compounds of N. sativa were further analyzed by molecular docking and MD simulation studies. The reported phytoconstituents, thymoquinone and thymol present in N. sativa were docked with H. pylori Cag A and Vac A oncoproteins. Structures of ligands were prepared using ChemDraw Ultra 10 software and then changed into their 3D PDB structures using Molinspiration followed by energy minimization by using software Discovery Studio client 2.5. Results: The docking results revealed the promising inhibitory potential of thymoquinone against Cag A and Vac A with docking energy of -5.81 kcal/mole and -3.61kcal/mole, respectively. On the contrary, the inhibitory potential of thymol against Cag A and Vac A in terms of docking energy was -5.37 kcal/mole and -3.94kcal/mole as compared to the standard drug, metronidazole having docking energy of -4.87 kcal/mole and -3.20 kcal/mole, respectively. Further, molecular dynamic simulations were conducted for 5ns for optimization, flexibility prediction, and determination of folded Cag A and Vac A oncoproteins stability. The Cag A and Vac A oncoproteins-TQ complexes were found to be quite stable with the root mean square deviation value of 0.2nm. Conclusion: The computational approaches suggested that thymoquinone and thymol may play an effective pharmacological role to treat H. pylori infection. Hence, it could be summarized that the ligands thymoquinone and thymol bound and interacted well with the proteins Cag A and Vac A as compared to the ligand MTZ. Our study showed that all lead compounds had good interaction with Cag A and Vac A proteins and suggested them to be a useful target to inhibit H. pylori infection.
N. sativa, phytoconstituents, hepatocellular carcinoma, molecular docking, simulation, H. pylori.
Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow- 226026, Uttar Pradesh, Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow- 226026, Uttar Pradesh